TCP/IP

The evolution of the Internet and the birth of TCP/IP

During the 1970s Bob Kahn and Vinton Cerf would collaborate as key members of a team to create the building blocks of the modern internet TCP/IP.The creation of the protocol suite TCP/IP as the basic set of rules for computers to communicate was one of the last major phases in the development of this global network we now call the Internet.

The internet was not something born of a single idea, but rather a gradual evolution, and the work of many people over many years.

The idea started with a vision to create a decentralized computer network, whereby every computer was connected to each other, but if one member of the systems was hit, the others would remain unaffected.

From the initial idea of a decentralized computer network came the concept of packet switching. During the 1960s Paul Baran developed the concept of packet switching networks while conducting research at the historic RAND organization.

Computer networking packet switching explained in simple terms

Packet switching explained in simple termsThroughout the standard for Internet Protocol you will see the description of packet switching, "fragment and reassemble internet datagrams when necessary for transmission through small packet networks." A message is divided into smaller parts know as packets before they are sent. Each packet is transmitted individually and can even follow different routes to its destination. Once all the packets forming a message arrive at the destination, they are recompiled into the original message.

Internet data, whether in the form of a Web page, a downloaded file or an e-mail message, travels over a system known as a packet-switching network. Each of these packages gets a wrapper that includes information on the sender's address, the receiver's address, the package's place in the entire message, and how the receiving computer can be sure that the package arrived intact.

There are two huge advantages to the packet switching. The network can balance the load across various pieces of equipment on a millisecond-by-millisecond basis. If there is a problem with one piece of equipment in the network while a message is being transferred, packets can be routed around the problem, ensuring the delivery of the entire message.

The Internet Family of Protocols The TCP/IP protocol suite

TCP/IP protocol suite graphiicThe Internet Model of computer networking is not merely a reduced version of the OSI Reference Model with a straight line comparison of the four layers of the TCP/IP model to seven layers of the OSI model, as we explain here, and in the next page on the difference between the Internet and OSI reference model

The Internet protocol suite commonly known as TCP/IP is a set of communications protocols used for the Internet and similar networks. TCP/IP is not a single protocol, but rather an entire family of protocols.

The network concept of protocols establishes a set of rules for each system to speak the others language in order for them to communicate. Protocols describe both the format that a message must take as well as the way in which messages are exchanged between computers.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), were the first two members of the family to be defined, consider them the parents of the family. Protocol stack describes a layered set of protocols working together to provide a set of network functions. Each protocol/layer services the layer above by using the layer below.

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