Physical Layer Topology in computer networking

Physical Layer Topology in computer networkingA network topology refers to the layout of the transmission medium and devices on a network. As a networking professional for many years I can honestly say about the only time network topology has come up is for certification testing. Here are some basic definitions.

Physical Topology:

Physical topology defines the cable's actual physical configuration (star, bus, mesh, ring, cellular, hybrid).

The Internet Family of Protocols The TCP/IP protocol suite

TCP/IP protocol suite graphiicThe Internet Model of computer networking is not merely a reduced version of the OSI Reference Model with a straight line comparison of the four layers of the TCP/IP model to seven layers of the OSI model, as we explain here, and in the next page on the difference between the Internet and OSI reference model

The Internet protocol suite commonly known as TCP/IP is a set of communications protocols used for the Internet and similar networks. TCP/IP is not a single protocol, but rather an entire family of protocols.

The network concept of protocols establishes a set of rules for each system to speak the others language in order for them to communicate. Protocols describe both the format that a message must take as well as the way in which messages are exchanged between computers.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), were the first two members of the family to be defined, consider them the parents of the family. Protocol stack describes a layered set of protocols working together to provide a set of network functions. Each protocol/layer services the layer above by using the layer below.

The Physical Layer of the OSI model

Physical media is thought of as some sort of wireThe Physical Layer consists of the basic hardware transmission technologies of a network sometime referred to as the physical media. Physical media provides the electro-mechanical interface through which data moves among devices on the network.

Initially physical media is thought of as some sort of wire. As technology progresses the types of media grows.

Bounded media transmits signals by sending electricity or light over a cable. Unbounded media transmits data without the benefit of a conduit-it might transmit data through open air, water, or even a vacuum. Simply put, media is the wire, or anything that takes the place of the wire, such as fiber optic, infrared, or radio spectrum technology.

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